Criminal Justice Research Paper
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Criminal Justice Research Paper
RFEA – The Forces of Jobs Charity and Walking With The Wounded's common goal was to help veterans with severe civil change issues. Project Nova was formed by RFEA. It has been based on RFEA 's support to Veterans in Prison and support to Wounded, Injured, and Sick Veterans for walking with the Wounded. The project started with a pilot in Norfolk and Suffolk more than two years ago. It has a simple goal: provide veterans involved in the criminal justice system with early targeted assistance and the support they need to reconstruct their lives, and many will be prevented. Keywords: RFEA, veterans, the criminal justice system, military
In the initial Nova pilot, they were able to commission Anglia Ruskin University, with the support of the Mind Trust Forces, to conduct an independent study of the consequences of Nova on the veterans arrested by or at risk of being arrested. It's always challenging to reach veterans in this position: they often live a chaotic life and face many problems. However, in working very closely with the Police, the NHS, and many other strategic partners, the experts and dedicated employees have shown that many veterans in this position will respond to the expert help they offer.
Military and Criminal Justice
There are many purposes of civil, criminal justice, including obtaining victims' justice, punishing wrongdoers, and deterring misconduct in the future, as well as ensuring fairness in the process by providing a proper procedure for people accused of wrongdoing. Most players have a different position in this system and are all neutral (except for the prosecutors who work on behalf of the accused). In this system, the roles are different (MacArthur, 2019). For example, the public prosecution should be unbiased. It should not present cases in which justification remains of convicting the accused to a jury of friends of the condemned. They are expected to provide testimony and agree to sentence the convicted.
Investigators who collect evidence of crimes shall also be unbiased. In courts, lawyers under the Fifth and Sixth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States are also given to the convicted. All facets of the criminal justice system, including deterrence and equity, are, in principle, to meet the purposes of the criminal justice system (MacArthur, 2019). Challenges emerge at all stages of the criminal justice system that impede a system's ability to accomplish its aims. Several papers on this subject have been published and are not discussed here. Yet the system's framework is such that offenders and suspects are safe when it functions as it should.
The military justice system is distinct from the civil criminal justice system. Title 10 Sections 801 to 940 and Title 14 Sections 508 and 509 of the United States Code are codified in compliance with the Uniform code of Military Justice and regulate any type of unlawful activity by military members along with any other wrongdoing by service members that is not civilian equivalent such as a failure to comply with a court order or disrespect (Brooke-Holland, 2014). In the civil world, a prosecutor must test the facts when a crime is committed and determine if charges can be brought against the person.
In the military context, the defendant's commander is the person at the discretion of the prosecutor. This means that the commander decides whether to administer, for example, informally advise or limit privileges charges against a member of the department or to bring the charges before the court-martial (Brooke-Holland, 2014). The power is given to a commander to hold a court-martial that makes the commander the "convening authority." However, a general court-martial can also be convened by the president, secretary of defense, or secretaries of various military branches under the statute (The Commander's Role in Military Justice). The more severe crimes involve a general court-martial, in case of other minor offenses, summary court-martial, and special court-martial.
The military justice system focuses authority on the accused in one person, whereas the authority is more diffuse under the civil, criminal justice system. Although commanders must be in a position to preserve discipline and order, justice for the victims and due process for the convicted must be given by the judicial system. Military sexual assault cases are particularly likely to be the victim of failure (The Commander's Role in Military Justice). In parallel to those in the criminal justice system, the military justice system has unique requirements. There is a need for an overhaul of the military justice system to make it more conducive to the civilian justice system. The other aims of order and discipline within a military judiciary are, depending on one's perspective, the overriding factors counsel against commanders' removal of power.
Background of Issues
During the 12 months from July 2014 to 2015, the Police investigating centers (PICs) of Norfolk and Suffolk received 145 veteran arrests. Between July 2014 and February 2015, 89 veterans were detained, and between March and July 2015, an additional 56 were held. Of these, 35 agreed to submit their assessment details to a participant that did not qualify as a veteran (Ministry of Defense, 2016). To help with the analysis, the 111 veterans who have either been not contactable or refused to participate in the research received access to further basic demographics and six months before the offense.
Consequences of Problems
At least once in 6 months before the crime, which led to the referral to the program were arrested seven out of ten participants of the interview. None of the ten respondents was detained; however, six months after they joined Project Nova, indicating a trend that did not offend this cohort. In comparison to the general offender in Norfolk and Suffolk, an increased percentage of crimes committed by Nova-based veterans have been violent or sexual (43.3% vs. 19.5%). This discrepancy, which is close to other fieldwork, was found to be significant (MacManus, 2013).
Figure 1. Liaison and Diversion
The clearest example of a US active intervention technique is a serial intercept model developed by Munetz and Griffin (Munetz & Griffin, 2006) at the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS). This Diversion Model is used by veterans, shows Blue-Howells and others (Blue-Howells, 2013). The approach is used to help mentally ill individuals joining the justice system in the USA and has been modified to include participants in different phases of the US criminal justice process with mental health care. The Veterans Affairs (VA) program provides for the interventions (Blue Howells, 2013).
All transition support, which was inconsistently provided before 1998, was delivered via single services ( i.e., Army, RAF, and Royal Navy). To resolve this, a specific framework for the change was given within the MoD by the Dept. for Training, Schooling, Expertise, Recruiting & Resettlement (TESRR) that has periodically been revised (Ministry of Defense, 2016), and the Career Transformation Partnership (CTP) has sponsored realistic activities since 1998 under an ongoing arrangement with the MoD. Table 1 below provides detailed information to transition support:
Table 1. Transition Support
Recommendations Evidence suggests that the recurrence of all delinquent forms has been minimized among veterans participating with Project Nova. Since this trend was not statistically significant, an analysis of a broader sample of participants would be prudent and recommended (Ministry of Defense, 2016). Their estimates indicate that in both the study and the comparative classes, at least 137 participants will be needed.
Solutions A campaign regarding participants is required as broader sample of participants are needed for a statistically significant trend. In order to come up with a comprehensive solution, as stated in recommendations as well, trustworthy and statistically significant data is necessary.
Also, Sequential Intercept Model, as seen in Figure 2 should be thoroughly and meticulously implemented for veterans. Missing a step on the model may result in corrupt and disrupted solutions. Therefore, implementing regulative measures is a key solution.
Figure 2. Sequential Intercept Model
This report took evidence from sources into consideration. Initially, the information collected by the Project Nova team was supplemented with information from local police data from historical offensive sources. Secondly, in-depth interviews with a diverse group of participants from Project Nova and with a Nova project team leader and custody official. However, the experts and dedicated employees have shown in their closer cooperation with the Police, NHS, and many other strategic partners that many veterans in this position will respond positively to their expert assistance.
Blue-Howells, J., Clark, S., van den Berk-Clark, C., and McGuire, J., 2013. The US department of veterans affairs veterans justice programs and the sequential intercept model: case examples in national dissemination of intervention for justice-involved veterans. Psychological Services. Vol 10
Brooke-Holland, L. (2014). The military justice system: an introduction. House of Commons Library.
MacArthur, A. T. (2019, January 15). Antonin Scalia Law School.
MacManus, D., Dean, K., Jones, M., Rona, R., Greenberg, N., Hull, L., Fahy, T., Wessely, S., and Fear, N., 2013 (June). Violent offending by UK military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afganistan: a data linkage cohort study. The Lancet. Vol 381
Ministry of Defence, 2016 [Online]. UK Armed Forces Family Strategy.
Munetz, M., and Griffin, P., 2006. Use of the sequential intercept model as an approach to decriminalization of people with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Services. Vol 57, No
The Commander’s Role in Military Justice.
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