Environment Essay: Global Climate Change


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Global Climate Change


This paper analyzes the factors contributing the climate change, including the Paris and Kyoto agreements and global climate change agreements from the tragedy of commons perspective. It also covers topics such as greenhouse gases, ozone levels, temperature targets and disagreements between states. It is evident throughout the article that when every state considers its interest, it is not possible to achieve a mutual agreement and prevent global climate change.

Causes of Climate Change

Greenhouse gasses are the primary source of global warming. These include carbon dioxide, phosphorus, nitrous oxides and, in some cases, compounds containing chlorine and bromine. The accumulation of these gasses in the air changes the radiative equilibrium of the atmosphere. It serves to warm the surface of the planet and the lower atmosphere, as greenhouse gases consume some of the Earth's emissions and re-energize it back to the soil (Dessler & Parson, 2019). The net temperature increased by about 2.5 W / m2 from 1850 to the end of the 20th century with a volume of 60% carbon dioxide, methanol by around 25%, and nitrous oxides and halocarbons.

An essay was written in 1985 by Joe Farman from the British Antarctic Survey, documenting the decline in Antarctic ozone levels in the early 1980s. The response was striking: wide-ranging international scientific projects were placed in place to demonstrate that the problem was due to the use of CFCs (used as aerosol propellants in chemical purification fluids or cooling tools). The second significant cause of global warming is ozone loss (Dessler & Parson, 2019). Perhaps more significant was the sudden diplomatic effort to reduce CFCs' emissions. It is partly attributed to the presence of sources of chlorine.

Paris and Kyoto Agreement

In the so-called COPs (Conference of the Parties), the signatory States meet periodically to decide on more steps for climatic security. In 1997, the summit took place in Kyoto, Japan, at which the signed parties accepted the Kyoto Protocol, the first legally binding agreement on limits and cuts (Dessler & Parson, 2019). In the years 2008 through 2012 (1st bond period) and 2013 through to 2020 (2nd bond limit), the limit of applying was set.

A new climate deal was required to maintain international climate security after 2020. The "Paris Agreement," which, for the first time, contained a concrete goal to restrict global warming to below 2°C over pre-industrial rates in the years since 1750, was introduced at the 2015 COP in Paris. The ratified countries developed their own goals for cuts, whereby climate conservation measures would be checked and improved every five years (Dessler & Parson, 2019). At least 55 signed countries, accounting for at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions, met the requisite amount in October 2016, which meant that the deal would enter into effect.

The tragedy of Commons and Climate Change

The tragedy of the commons, indicates that setting concrete goals should be strategically feasible and that a socially desirable net profit assignment mechanism should be defined as the biggest challenge. Nevertheless, this presupposes that the general goal is to increase the utility of the collective pool capital for the population, whatever their operation is (Brown & Cinner, 2018). Partial Kyoto decarbonization might happen by removing inefficiencies in the energy sector, which could provide instant net economic benefits; it took less than two years to agree with the allocation law.

In achieving Paris' 2°C or 1.5°C targets, however, net anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions into the climate will cease in the latter half of the last century altogether. It was almost impossible to identify immediate net benefits associated with a complete emission stoppage, so the negotiation of such an agreement required convincing people to take care of significant future benefits, some of them centuries afterwards (Brown & Cinner, 2018). The temperature target therefore altered the negotiating character qualitatively and made it far more difficult, perhaps impossible.


In summary, this study examined the causes behind the global climate change, Paris and Kyoto agreements and global climate change agreements with the tragedy of the commons. It also covered topics such as ozone levels and greenhouse gases, temperature targets and disagreements between states which led to problems. The article indicates that when every state considers its own interest, it is not possible to achieve a mutual agreement and prevent global climate change effectively.


Dessler, A. E., & Parson, E. A. (2019). The science and politics of global climate change: A guide to the debate. Cambridge University Press.

Brown, K., Adger, W. N., & Cinner, J. E. (2018). Moving climate change beyond the tragedy of the commons.

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