Respiratory System Essay

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Respiratory System and Diseases

Respiratory System Essay: Introduction

The respiratory system is a system that does not work alone and acts with many other systems. It works with blood, muscle, and cardiovascular systems that are connected to each other. Diaphragm is a dome-shaped striped muscle system that separates the chest cavity and abdominal cavity in the respiratory system. The muscular system uses the diaphragm to enlarge the volume of the lungs (How to do the circulatory system…). Increased volume in the lungs allows oxygen-containing air to enter the lungs, and this oxygenated air spreads to the blood with low oxygen in the pulmonary capillaries (Drayer, 2017). This is the function of the respiratory system. Here, oxygen-enriched blood is pumped to the Cardiovascular system by using the cardio muscular system. Oxygen-enriched blood enters the left atrium.

Then, the cardio muscular system uses the oxygen-enriched blood to pop into the arteries that carry it to the body cells. In this way, oxygen-poor cells are enriched with oxygen. This used blood is then pumped back to the right atrium through the arteries and sent back to the lungs for enrichment with oxygen from there (Cardiovascular and Respiratory System). As it is seen, in this process, this internal system works all together at the same time. The muscular system strengthens the movement of oxygen to cells. The respiratory system combines oxygen with blood. The circulatory system carries blood to the cells. The process of each of these systems is an essential issue for a flawless circulation. So, how can infections that occur can damage these systems? There are some genetic conditions and infections that may infect the lungs and within other body systems.

Cystic Fibrosis (CF)

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs, digestive system, and other organs in the body. Cystic Fibrosis is an inherited disease with an autosomal recessive transition. In other words, it occurs as a result of a disorder (mutation) in a gene from the mother and father. It is a deadly disease in young children. Dysfunction occurs in the exocrine glands (pancreas, respiratory system, salivary gland, gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, and paranasal glands). It contains sweat, excess chlorine, and less potassium. Abnormal mucus secretion causes blockage of mucus-producing cells, resulting in the formation of asthma, pneumonia, and sinusitis (Drayer, 2017). The absence of pancreatic enzymes leads to impairment in protein, fat, and carbohydrate digestion. The patient may be delayed in diagnosis because its symptoms are similar to common ailments in childhood. If the course of the disease is not done well, mild symptoms may be replaced by organ involvements or even death. Although lung involvement is an essential factor determining the prognosis of the disease, malabsorption (absorption disorder) due to pancreatic involvement is also one of the factors affecting survival (Cystic fibrosis. Mayo Clinic, 2020).

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a hereditary neuromuscular disease in which progressive muscle weakness, atrophy, and later respiratory problems and cardiac involvement are observed as a result of skeletal muscle involvement. It can begin as early as age 2 or 3, and the disease primarily affects boys, but in rare cases, it can affect girls. The most critical respiratory problems in DMD patients, hypoventilation caused by inspiratory muscle involvement, impaired cough functions, and airway cleansing ability caused by expiratory muscle weakness, aspiration risk is arising from impaired swallowing functions and upper respiratory tract obstruction due to pharyngeal muscle weakness and sleep-related respiratory disorders. Genetically X-linked recessive rarely shows an autosomal dominant transition (The Muscular Dystrophy Association).

Legionnaires' Disease

Legionella bacteria are microorganisms found in natural waters. Water sources such as lakes, rivers, marshes, and hot springs in almost every part of the world; from soil samples; Legionella's are isolated from well waters, manure, sewage content, and ocean shores. Legionella's are also widely shown in human-made water systems. Legionella is a serious problem when the water temperature is between 25-55 C for a long time. Strong water flow can prevent bacteria from breeding, but if this flow is not constant throughout the entire hot water system, dead spaces occur in areas where the water is stagnant. Dead spaces make it easier to settle the bacteria, increasing the risk. How can a Person be Infected by Legionnaires Disease? If there is no contaminated water source, Legionnaires' disease does not develop. There are two ways in which bacteria can reach the lungs. The widely accepted route is the inhalation of water aerosols containing Legionella, which are emitted from respiratory air from environmental sources (fans of cooling-towers, whirlpool, and showerheads, spray humidification devices, decorative sprinklers...). Another important way of transmission is the bacteria located in the oropharynx as a result of aspiration of water containing Legionella, passing into the respiratory tract. Their infection from person to person is not able to be (Legionnaires' disease. Mayo Clinic, 2019).

Coronavirus (Covid-19)

Coronavirus, a virus that is on the global agenda in 2020, has affected millions of people and cause the death of many. Coronaviruses (Covid-19) are a large family of viruses that cause different pictures ranging from mild colds to severe respiratory distress. It is known that the disease is infected by droplets and contact with a person. It is defined as a pandemic due to the global epidemic situation it creates. The new coronavirus is a type of coronavirus family that can affect both animals and humans. Looking back, some different viruses from the coronavirus family cause severe respiratory diseases such as MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) and SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome). Symptoms of new coronavirus infection include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing. In more severe cases, the infection can cause pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, kidney failure, and even death. There is still no cure for the disease (Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

References

Drayer, D. (2017, October 26). How do the circulatory system, muscular system, and respiratory system work together to bring oxygen to the cells?: Socratic. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://socratic.org/questions/how-do-the-circulatory-system-muscular-system-and-respiratory-system-work-togeth

Mayo Clinic Stuff (2020, March 14). Cystic fibrosis. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cystic-fibrosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20353700

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2019, September 17). Legionnaires' disease. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/legionnaires-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20351747

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2020, May 22). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/symptoms-causes/syc-20479963

StaceyFleming01, (2015, February 11). Cardiovascular and Respiratory System.

The Muscular Dystrophy Association (2020, April 07). Diseases - DMD - Top Level. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://mda.org/disease/duchenne-muscular-dystrophy

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Baris Yalcin
Baris Yalcin
Content Editor at Tamara Research. Movie and music addict. Bachelor's degree in Translation and Interpreting.

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