Racism in the United States Essay
Racism in the United States
Racism in the United States: Introduction
Throughout human history, racial identities have become a focus of discussion and conflict to such an extent that one may observe many wars due to racial differences. Fortunately, with the progressive and intellectual development, we have somewhat overcome the initial prejudices regarding races, although criminal justice system and social approach are not satisfying in many parts of the world. Accordingly, this paper analyzes racial discrimination issues in U.S.A. It covers topics such as the impact on society in terms of criminal justice, business, education, prison, police stops and searches, and other procedures. It also includes other minorities such as Latinos and Hispanics. The following sections present the data concerning this issue and propose solutions to reduce racial inequality in the U.S.A. The results of many studies on criminal activities are analyzed in this paper. These findings show that criminal justice reforms have been sufficient enough, and they need to be discussed. Throughout the article, it is evident that a Supervisory Authority needs to be established to give justice to minorities in the U.S. A, and it is necessary to inform minorities about their rights and opportunities.
The Impact of Racism
Although racial discrimination is highly related to the skin colour and background, one can observe its impacts on many branches of society such as economics, culture, and social life. Community and national statistics show the cumulative impact of racial disparity in each criminal justice decision-making point (Juana, 2016). Decisions made at one point tend to raise the inequalities at the next. For example, if bail procedure leads to blacks being held at higher rates than equally placed whites before the court, they are also marginalized at trial, with less coverage for legal attorneys, community, and treatment options. The following examples show disparities:
The widely discussed "driving while black" phenomenon showed the potential abuse of law enforcement discretion. A two-year study of 13,566 traffic stops in a mid-western city initiated by the officials found that minority drivers were hit more quickly than white drivers and searched for contraband more rapidly than their white counterparts (Hetey & Eberhardt, 2018). Yet, officials did not find contraband against minority drivers more likely than white drivers.
A state analysis in New York showed that felony blacks are more likely than whites to be in jail (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2018). The researchers concluded that if minorities were detained at a rate comparably situated whites, 10% of minorities arrested in New York City and 33% in other parts of the state would have been released before their arraignment.
Thirty-eight percent of inmates are African American, and they are 13 percent of the general population (The Sentencing Project, 2018).
Together with its 15 percent population, Latinos comprise 19% of the people in jails and corrections. This number seems extremely high when considered the ratio and proportion of the gender to the overall population.
An Afro American born in 2001 has a 32% possibility of going to jail, a Hispanic male has a 17% chance, and a white male has a 6% chance (Sabol & Caccavale, 2020)
Solutions to Reduce Racial Discrimination
Developing a study project that focuses on law enforcement is crucial. The race differences should be studied at as many decision points as possible, including police meetings with the public (i.e., traffic and foot stops and searches) when minority members are disproportionately represented in crucial policy decision-making points. In the event of disparity, the police agencies can implement:
Comparison to the other daily statistics gathered at roads and pedestrian crossings, strict steps must also be taken to track and report details on race and ethnicity. This will help to establish the racial profiling presence and scope.
Provide written information about their rights and complaint process to all persons who are stopped by police.
Whenever there is a difference, they should launch a cycle of evaluating procedures, governing principles, and activities that could lead to legislation with police department administrators, staff leaders, and representatives of minorities.
Social awareness campaigns should be started. After all, education is the most critical aspect of society, and racially diverse cultures should embrace the fact since early childhood. In this direction, local and federal agencies should implement financing and regulations to overcome discrimination in the society.
This article analyzes issues related to racial discrimination in the U.S., including the impact on society regarding criminal justice, business, education, imprisonment, police detainment, and investigation, and other procedures. Many ethnic communities, such as Hispanics and Latinos, also included in this paper. Besides that, the findings of several illegal activity reports are reviewed, and the above sections discussed the evidence on this problem and recommended strategies to eliminate social inequities in the U.S. Such results suggest that the reforms of criminal justice were not so successful and still needs to be addressed. The whole of this article explicitly notes that a supervisory body must be set up to ensure equality of justice for any individual of the United States and that the freedoms and prospects of minorities must be provided.
Hetey, R. C., & Eberhardt, J. L. (2018). The Numbers Don't Speak for Themselves: Racial Disparities and the Persistence of Inequality in the Criminal Justice System. Sage Journals, 31-48.
Hollingsworth, Juana D., "Racial disparities among African Americans primarily in the criminal justice system and other areas in society" (2016). Graduate Research Papers. 154: University of Northern Iowa. https://scholarworks.uni.edu/grp/154
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). The Criminal Justice System and Social Exclusion: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Proceedings of a Workshop in Brief.
Sabol, W. J., Johnson, T. L., & Caccavale, A. (2020). Trends in Correctional Control by Race and Sex. Federal Sentencing Reporter, 32(3), 157-177.
The Sentencing Project (2018, April 19). Report to the United Nations on Racial Disparities in the U.S. Criminal Justice System. The Sentencing Project. https://sentencingproject.org/publications/un-report-on-racial-disparities/.