SIOP Model Essay

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Instructional Methodologies for Teaching EELs

The SIOP Model

The integrated teaching approach was first defined by Krashen (1981) in the early 1980s as an approach that covers the use of second language acquisition strategies in the field education and training for learners with limited English language proficiency, registered in content area classes. Echevarria (1995), on the other hand, has defined the integrated teaching approach with a specially designed academic education expression that enables to reach the objectives of the core program by using techniques that make the lesson understandable, and emphasized that content knowledge and language proficiency develop together in this education process. The integrated teaching approach provides learners with the knowledge and skills they will need to complete their education, while at the same time enabling them to use the language support service they need to learn a second language longer. However, in order for the integrated teaching approach to be implemented effectively, language and content objectives should be systematically included in the curriculum of the content areas applied at all appropriate grade levels. In the mid-1990s, they developed the SIOP (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol) model, the first integrated teaching approach, to guide teachers to implement integrated teaching effectively and systematically.

An integrated teaching approach is a systematic approach with a specific purpose and implementation stages. It is based on bringing together and integrating two different disciplines. In the integrated teaching approach, two different discipline areas are presented to the learners as a whole, and it is aimed for learners to gain in both areas. In this study, this feature of the integrated teaching approach has been taken into consideration, and it has been used as a model in the integration of two different discipline fields. In sheltered instruction, educators want to see students develop proficiency in English as well as provide access to grade-level content. Points to consider: Sensory activities, accessing prior knowledge, using visuals, knowing the culture of students.

If the primary school lesson in the video examined, the Content Target and the Language Target are written explicitly on the board, next the teacher reminds the students of the previously learned information when starting the lesson. The teacher also enables students to participate frequently in the process and supports active learning. Active learning provides students with; decision-making opportunities in various aspects of the learning process and is a learning process in which the student is forced to use his mental abilities during learning. After the concepts in the content target are explained by the students and the teacher, the language target is passed. In this process, a hint is given to combine the previously learned content target with the new language target and reminded what is known and what is not known. Students are expected to strengthen each other by trading between the two goals in the lessons designed to process the previously learned subject with the new language target. In this CLIL approach, students are exposed to a more natural language learning style, and they can develop both cognitive and language skills simultaneously. The teacher gives clues, uses hand and face gestures to help students verbally explain the concepts they have been learning, and gives instant feedback based on their answers, but never explains the concept totally before hearing the response of the students. This process can be beneficial for students to support their cognitive development, as well as having a verbal explanation to the teacher as a result of the cognitive process pushes them to use their language skills.

Co-Teaching in ELL

According to Friend and Cook (2010), different approaches can be displayed in the Co-Teaching model, although there are two teachers whose general task is the same, different models or strategies can be exhibited. Teamwork Model and Station Teacher models were followed in the video. In Teamwork Model, teachers share the responsibility of the class, conduct the lesson together at the same time. The video includes a classroom teacher and an ESL teacher. The classroom teacher first conveys the content information with its general structure and explains the subject as a whole. After this general explanation, she emphasizes the vocabulary section, which selected as essential before in the joint meetings with the ESL teacher, with visual support and follows a more specific way. After the words are expressed, the sentences that the students have difficulty understanding are shown to the students, and they are asked what they comprehend. The observation may be from the feedback of the students on how much they understand the content or vice versa. This type of observation is not used in the presentation phase of the video because the teachers have determined the targets and the new structures to be taught in their meetings. Then such an observation is carried out in another model; Station Teaching. Station Teaching allows each teacher to work with small groups of students.

Teachers divide students into groups, and with the help of a teacher, they create activities for students to engage in the lesson material. In these activities, both observations can be made, they can be improved with peer support, and the teacher offers support. In the active participation process, teachers assist students in deficiencies and what needs to be emphasized. Pre and Post assessment helps to understand the aspects that children complete and fail in learning. Working together with students according to their needs can be effective as long as the H-L balance is established, and the goals are considered (Storch & Aldosari, 2013). In the analysis of photography, the aim is to make sure that the teachers, in terms of language and content, reach their goals. All this planning and evaluation seems quite time-consuming.

The two teachers work together creatively to accommodate the language proficiencies, cultural diversity, and educational backgrounds of the students teaching involve the distribution of responsibilities among people for co-planning, co-instructing, and co-assessing. Co-Teaching is not; using an ESL teacher as a floater for only ELL students, putting two teachers together and asking them to work together with no common planning time, one teacher entering another teacher's classroom without the power to influence instruction and taking a passive role, having qualified ESL teachers to walk into a content area classroom and seeing the lesson for the first time without any input. The teamwork model may not always be successful. Teachers who have adopted the uniform method and have a strict personality type could look cold towards team teaching. Changing perspectives from teachers to teachers and personal differences between teachers may affect teachers' collaboration. Even among close friends, there may be conflicts and tensions from time to time. Sometimes teachers may not like other teachers on the team. Teachers might not want to take responsibility for possible failures. Team teaching may require more time and energy than classic models. Members should spare time for planning and evaluation.

SIOP Model: Language Experience Approach

The language experience approach is an approach to support their acquisition of language reading and writing in English in a natural way. The central principle is to use the students' own vocabulary language patterns and background experiences to develop the text that is relevant and meaningful. For this reason, a version of LEA adapted to meet the needs of ELLs for emergent readers. The language experience approach generally begins with a shared experience related to the class content. This might be a field trip, a collaborative activity, play, a game presentation, etc. Deciphering words without comprehension eliciting common language first happens through an informal conversation where students discuss what they experienced. The goal here is to communicate about the experience. If students do not have the words, oral language reading simply becomes word calling, deciphering words without comprehension.

The first goal is not the accuracy of language but to communicate. Then the transcription phase starts. While the instructor writes every word, students witness that anything that they can say may also be written. When students are pushed to describe the experience they fish for the language they need; there is a need to use language Corrections; what is important to understand about this step is that unlike the previous steps which focused on meaning here, the focus is on the accuracy of English language use. After correcting the text to the extent possible, it is read aloud to correlate together. In a kindergarten setting like in the video language experience approach, students' life lessons become part of the classroom; it is a way to get kids engaged. It also helps them increase their sight word recognition through reading their own stories. Students start to improve on their fluency more and more.

The process starts with a student telling one of their stories. The student tells their story verbally at first next teachers usually write down the story as the student tells it they should write it down word-for-word. The student can read this story to themselves at first once they've mastered it with assists, then they can read the story alone. With LEA; The text, reading, art, and language are all together. It increases the creativity of learners to write storytelling. It helps students to understand that they can write what they think and say. It is student-centered and shows that the thinking and language of students are appreciated. It provides predictable and readable reading material because it uses the natural language of the learners.

Conclusion

To sum up, SIOP, which is the most suitable one among these three approaches. Other approaches have many slowing factors and are very open to being monotonous in today's world. In the Co-Teaching approach, it divides a process that can be overcome with a single teacher in SIOP, it can help students develop individually, but it requires too much time. Language Experience Approach has more requirements to be closer to life. SIOP has more flexible and diversifiable techniques, prioritizes the student, and gives awareness of what is learned more explicitly.

References

Echevarría, Jana, and Deborah J. Short. "The SIOP Model: A Professional Development Framework for a Comprehensive School-Wide Intervention. CREATE Brief." Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching of English Language Learners (2011).

Friend, M., Cook, L., Hurley-Chamberlain, D., & Shamberger, C. (2010). Co-teaching: An illustration of the complexity of collaboration in special education. Journal of educational and psychological consultation, 20(1), 9-27.

Krashen, S. D. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. University of Southern California.

Storch, N., & Aldosari, A. (2013). Pairing learners in pair work activity. Language teaching research, 17(1), 31-48.

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